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A grand tourer cars (Italian: gran turismo) (GT) is a high-performance luxury automobile designed for long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement.The term derives from the Italian phrase gran turismo, homage to the tradition of the grand tour, used to represent automobiles regarded as grand tourers ( cars ), able to make long-distance, high-speed journeys in both comfort and style. The English translation is grand touring.Grand tourers ( cars ) differ from standard two-seat sports cars in typically being engineered as larger and heavier, emphasizing comfort over straight-out performance or spartan accommodations. Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts. Softer suspensions, greater storage, and more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. Some very high-performance ( cars ) grand tourers, such as Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano and Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren make various compromises in the opposite direction while rivalling sports cars in speed, acceleration, and cornering ability, earning them the special designation supercars.
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The GT abbreviation, so popular across the automotive industry, traces to the Italian tradition of referring to their luxury performance cars as gran turismo. Manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo,Ferrari and Lancia led the way starting from the end of 1920s.
Among the many variations of GT are:
GTO (Gran Turismo Omologato) a homologated car for racing (used by Ferrari, Pontiac and Mitsubishi). For example the Ferrari 599 GTO
GTS (Gran Turismo Spider) a convertible GT car. For example the Ferrari 348 GTS.
GTS (Gran Turismo Sport) a four-door sedan. For example the HSV GTS.
GTS (Grand Turisme Spécial) used by Renault in their mid-range variants of the "Numeric" fleet, example the Renault 19 GTS
GTB (Gran Turismo Berlinetta) a coupe style GT. For example the Ferrari 328 GTB or the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano.
GTV (Gran Turismo Veloce) a fast GT car. For example the Alfa Romeo GTV6.
GTI or GTi (Gran Turismo Iniezione) a fuel injected GT, first used on the 1961 Maserati 3500 GTI.
GTE (Grand Touring Estate) An estate wagon GT. For example the Reliant Scimitar GTE
GT/E (Einspritzung - German for fuel injection) used on the Opel Manta GT/E.
GTX (Grand Turisme Xtreme) used by Renault on their top-of-the-range sports variants of the "Numeric" fleet, example the Renault 21 GTX
GTA (Gran Turismo Alleggerita (lightened)/Automatic) For example the Alfa Romeo GTA (Allegerita), Ferrari 456 GTA (Automatic). An example of use of the abbreviation on a car not usually considered a GT is the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VII GT-A, where the A means Automatic.
GTAm (Gran Turismo Alleggerita Modificata) a modified, lightened GT car such as the Alfa Romeo GTAm.
GTC (Gran Turismo Compressore/Compact/Cabriolet/Coupe/Crossover) for example Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 GTC (Compressore), Bentley Continental GTC (Cabriolet), Ferrari 330 GTC and Opel Astra GTC (Compact), Opel Antara GTC (Crossover)
GTC (Gran Turismo Corsa (Racing)) - an Italian sports car racer. For example the Ferrari 458 Italia GTC.
GTD (Gran Turismo Diesel), used by Volkswagen in sport oriented Golf version and Peugeot in lowered Diesel 505 models.
GTR or GT-R, (Gran Turismo Racing), as in the McLaren F1 GTR, Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR, Nissan Skyline GT-R and Nissan GT-R
HGT (High Gran Turismo), used by Fiat in sport oriented cars version.
Examples of ( cars ) grand tourers
A true ( cars ) grand tourer is a luxury high-performance vehicle intended for long-distance high-speed travel in both comfort and style;just because a manufacturer appended some form of GT initials to its model designation as a marketing gambit does not make such a car a grand tourer. Some examples include:
Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione
Alfa Romeo Montreal
Aston Martin DB2
Aston Martin DB Mark III
Aston Martin DB4
Aston Martin DB5
Aston Martin DB6
Aston Martin V8
Aston Martin V8 Vantage
Aston Martin DB7
Aston Martin DB9
Aston Martin Virage
Aston Martin Vanquish
Aston Martin DBS
Bentley Continental GT Speed
Bentley Brooklands, 2008—
BMW 8 Series
BMW 6 Series
Cadillac CTS-V Coupe
Ferrari 612 Scaglietti
Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano
Lotus Elite (1970s-80s)
Maserati 3200 GT
Maserati 3500 GT
Maserati 5000 GT
Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing
Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG
Nissan Leopard Coupe
Monteverdi High Speed
Peugeot 907 Concept
Shelby Mustang GT500
Grand tourers in racing
Today the term grand tourer, or gran turismo is synonymous with race versions of sports cars (even those which don't fit the definition given above) that take part in sports car racing, including endurance races like the 24 Hours of Le Mans, 12 Hours of Sebring, Petit Le Mans, Mille Miglia, Targa Florio, and Carrera Panamericana. Examples of race grand tourers include:
Aston Martin DBR9
Audi R8 Grand-Am
BMW Z4 GT3
BMW M3 GTx
Chevrolet Corvette C6.R
Chrysler Viper GTS-R
Porsche 911 GT3
Nissan Skyline GT-R
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3
Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR
Saab 93/Saab GT750
In certain professional motorsport classifications, such as the Grand Touring categories promoted by the FIA, the GT car is defined as "an open or closed automobile which has no more than one door on each side and a minimum of two seats situated one on each side of the longitudinal centre line of the car;these two seats must be crossed by the same transversal plane. This car must be able to be used perfectly legally on the open road, and adapted for racing on circuits or closed courses." GT cars are divided, from most powerful to least powerful, into GT1 (formerly GTS and GT) and GT2 (formerly GT and N-GT) in most championships, although the ACO has canceled further GT1 involvement not only in the 24 Hours of Le Mans but in every other Le Mans Series (LMS, ALMS, ILMC, JLMC) sanctioned by the ACO. This only left room for GT1 cars to race in the FIA GT1 World Championship, while in turn GT2 cars only competed in ACO sanctioned event due to the absence of the FIA GT2 European Championship. GT3 and GT4 class cars also have their own championships, as well as being eligible for several National GT championships.